Current state technology grading system

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Current state technology grading system

For a given quantity of power transmitted, doubling the voltage will deliver the same power at only half the current.

Current state technology grading system

Since the power lost as heat in the wires is directly proportional to the square of the current, doubling the voltage reduces the line losses by a factor of 4. While power lost in transmission can also be reduced by increasing the conductor size, larger conductors are heavier and more expensive.

High voltage cannot readily be used for lighting or motors, so transmission-level voltages must be reduced for end-use equipment. Transformers are used to change the voltage levels in alternating current AC transmission circuits.

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Because transformers made voltage changes practical, and AC generators were more efficient than those using DC, AC became dominant after the introduction of practical systems of distribution in Europe in [9] and the conclusion in of the War of Currentsa competition being fought on many fronts in the US between the DC system of Thomas Edison and the AC system of George Westinghouse.

This system used series-connected motor-generator sets to increase the voltage. Each set was insulated from electrical ground and driven by insulated shafts from a prime mover. The transmission line was operated in a 'constant current' mode, with up to 5, volts across each machine, some machines having double commutators to reduce the voltage on each commutator.

Fifteen Thury systems were in Current state technology grading system by Various other electromechanical devices were tested during the first half of the 20th century with little commercial success.

Mercury arc valves[ edit ] First proposed in[19] the grid controlled mercury-arc valve became available for power transmission during the period to In HVDC applications, the AC power system itself provides the means of commutating the current to another valve in the converter.

Consequently, converters built with mercury arc valves are known as line-commutated converters LCC. LCCs require rotating synchronous machines in the AC systems to which they are connected, making power transmission into a passive load impossible.

Mercury arc valves were common in systems designed up tothe last mercury arc HVDC system the Nelson River Bipole 1 system in ManitobaCanada having been put into service in stages between and The mercury arc valves were decommissioned on 1 Augustahead of commissioning of replacement thyristor converters.

Thyristor valves[ edit ] Sincenew HVDC systems have used only solid-state devicesin most cases thyristor valves. Like mercury arc valves, thyristors require connection to an external AC circuit in HVDC applications to turn them on and off.

Development of thyristor valves for HVDC began in the late s. This results from requiring the AC circuit to turn off the thyristor current and the need for a short period of 'reverse' voltage to effect the turn-off turn-off time.

An attempt to address these limitations is the capacitor-commutated converter CCC which has been used in a small number of HVDC systems. The CCC differs from a conventional HVDC system in that it has series capacitors inserted into the AC line connections, either on the primary or secondary side of the converter transformer.

The series capacitors partially offset the commutating inductance of the converter and help to reduce fault currents. However, CCC has remained only a niche application because of the advent of voltage-source converters VSC which completely eliminate the need for an extinction turn-off time.

By the end ofthis technology had captured a significant proportion of the HVDC market. They have extended the use of HVDC down to blocks as small as a few tens of megawatts and overhead lines as short as a few dozen kilometers.

There are several different variants of VSC technology: Multilevel converters have the advantage that they allow harmonic filtering equipment to be reduced or eliminated altogether. By way of comparison, AC harmonic filters of typical line-commutated converter stations cover nearly half of the converter station area.

With time, voltage-source converter systems will probably replace all installed simple thyristor-based systems, including the highest DC power transmission applications. HVDC conversion equipment at the terminal stations is costly, but the total DC transmission line costs over long distances are lower than AC line of the same distance.

HVDC requires less conductor per unit distance than an AC line, as there is no need to support three phases and there is no skin effect. HVDC transmission may also be selected for other technical benefits.

HVDC powerflow between separate AC systems can be automatically controlled to support either network during transient conditions, but without the risk that a major power system collapse in one network will lead to a collapse in the second.

HVDC improves on system controllability, with at least one HVDC link embedded in an AC grid—in the deregulated environment, the controllability feature is particularly useful where control of energy trading is needed. The combined economic and technical benefits of HVDC transmission can make it a suitable choice for connecting electricity sources that are located far away from the main users.

Specific applications where HVDC transmission technology provides benefits include: Undersea cables transmission schemes e. Endpoint-to-endpoint long-haul bulk power transmission without intermediate 'taps,' usually to connect a remote generating plant to the main grid, for example the Nelson River DC Transmission System in Canada.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.

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