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Synchronisation and SMPTE timecode time code This document is a description mainly technical, but not requiring extensive prior knowledge of the SMPTE time-code synchronization system, especially the Bi-Phase Mark "LTC" timecode sync tone which can be recorded onto the audio track of a video tape or onto an audio tape.
Other time code variants, such as VITC time-code are also mentioned. Some supporting information on the related subjects of colour television standards and field sequences is included.
My original reason for exploring this subject technically was to develop a low cost MIDI tape sync unitwhich was a frequent customer request, and a logical addition to our range of electronic music gadgets. Synchronisation systems When you require pieces of audio, video, or music technology equipment eg.
This is called 'synchronisation' or 'synchronization', which gets shortened to 'sync' or even 'synch'. A magnetic tape-recorder track is the region of the tape that is scanned by one recording head element. It can, for example, carry an audio signal, that is an electronic analogue of a stream of sound.
In order to use an audio track to record sync information, the information must be encoded into an audio-compatible signal, called a sync tone. An audio tape track on which a sync tone has been recorded is called a 'stripe'. It is desirable that the synchronised devices can join in wherever you start up the sync tone, even if it is not at the beginning of the stripe; this is called 'chasing'.
In music technology applications, with equipment which is not timecode compatible, you may be able to use a tape sync unit by way of a tempo-relative stripe system.
This mainly relied on sprockets a row of neat holes in the film and in special sprocketed recording tape. Relative timing adjustments could be made by slipping sprocket holes. The same sprocket holes were used to maintain synchronisation. Video tape hasn't got any sprocket holes, so when video arrived an electronic equivalent was needed to take the place of mechanical methods of synchronisation.
By the way, there are also versions of timecode which can be inserted into a video signal or sent via a MIDI connection. On the website tvhandbook. The original uses of SMPTE timecode include accurate video editing and synchronising film sound-tracks.
The count consists of 0 to 59 seconds, 0 to 59 minutes and 0 to 23 hours. The second is subdivided into a number of frames, which may be varied to match the various frame-rates used around the world.
The frame-rate is the number of times a second that the picture is updated so as to give the illusion of continuous movement. Frame-rate formats There are four standard frame-rate formats: It is used with the Sony format for CD mastering.
It has its origins in the obsolete American mono television standard. The American colour television standard has a slightly different frame-rate of about In audio post-production, SMPTE has been adopted for machine synchronisation and as a reference of tape position.
Essentially, the choice of frame rate for audio work is usually arbitrary. The value of a bit is often represented by the 'off' and 'on' states of an electronic switch. When the sequence of binary digits must pass through a channel designed for analogue audio signals the 'on' and 'off' states 'phase' cannot be reliably distinguished.
However, audio frequencies are reproduced faithfully; to exploit this property, SMPTE Longitudinal TimeCode encodes its data into the rate frequency of electronic state transitions.
The binary value 0 is represented by a single transition at the start or 'boundary' of the bit-period or bit 'cell'. The binary value 1 is represented by a two transitions - one at the start and the second in the middle of the bit period.
This scheme is called 'Bi-Phase Mark' and closely resembles frequency modulation 'FM' ; that is, a stream of binary ones is represented by a burst of audio at double the frequency of a burst of audio which is used to represent a stream of a binary zeros.
This straightforward scheme of modulation is amazingly robust and compatible with a range of real world audio channels, including tape recorder tracks. To ensure good performance in audio channels, the rise-time of the waveform is also specified.
The frequency for a stream of zeros would be 1. In each frame, twenty six of the eighty bits carry the SMPTE time or 'address', in binary coded decimal.
The BCD digits are loaded 'least significant bit first'.
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This capacity is generally used to carry extra info such as reel number and date. The User Bits do not usually vary in the course of a timecode stream.Ex: J'ai besoin de boire pour étancher ma soif, mais que je boive un jus de fruit plutôt que de l'eau, cela relève du désir non du besoin.
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Contemporary Metaphilosophy. What is philosophy? What is philosophy for? How should philosophy be done? These are metaphilosophical questions, metaphilosophy being the study of the nature of philosophy.
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