How do these key components affect the process of communication and its overall effectiveness? How might you improve the use of these keys components of effective communication? How do the various types of listening play a role in effective communication? Compare and contrast the most important listening types and why they are important in the criminal justice system.
Victim impact statements are written or oral information from crime victims, in their own words, about how a crime has affected them. All 50 states allow victim impact statements at some phase of the sentencing process. Most states permit them at parole hearings, and victim impact information is generally included in the pre-sentencing report presented to the judge.
The purpose of victim impact statements is to allow crime victims, during the decision-making process on sentencing or parole, to describe to the court or parole board the impact of the crime.
A few states allow victim impact information to be introduced at bail, pre-trial release, or plea bargain hearings. Victim impact statements may provide information about damage to victims that would otherwise have been unavailable to courts or parole boards. Victims are often not called to testify in court, and if they testify, they must respond to narrow, specific questions.
Many victims report that making such statements improves their satisfaction with the criminal justice process and helps them recover from the crime.
Victim impact statements may include descriptions of: Physical damage caused by the crime. Emotional damage caused by the crime. Financial costs to the victim from the crime.
Medical or psychological treatments required by the victim or his or her family. The need for restitution court-ordered funds that the offender pays the victim for crime-related expenses. Most states allow victims to present oral or written statements.
Some states allow victims to record impact statements on videotape, audiotape, or other electronic means, particularly for use at parole hearings. In some states, child victims may submit drawings to describe how the crime affected them.
Some states require judges or parole boards to consider victim impact statements in their deliberations. Others simply allow victims to make statements with no additional requirement for judges or parole boards. Defendants are usually allowed to challenge the accuracy of the facts presented in victim impact statements.
You may have mixed feelings about making a victim impact statement. You may welcome the opportunity to tell the judge or parole hearing officer how the crime affected your life.
What You Can Do: Victims are often relieved to know that victim advocates in their communities can help them make decisions about victim impact statements. They can help you weigh the benefits of submitting a statement, and they can help you prepare and submit your victim impact statement.
Copyright by the National Center for Victims of Crime.
This information may be freely distributed, provided that it is distributed free of charge, reprinted in its entirety, and includes this copyright notice.Admissible Criminal Evidence It matters not how you get it; if you steal it even, it would be admissible in evidence” [per Justice Crompton in R v Leatham ] Discuss When considering the above statement it is necessary to examine legislation with regard to the admissibility of evidence.
* The author is a Major with the US Army and a Judge Advocate. Thanks are owed to Lieutenant Colonel Mark ‘Max’ Maxwell, Major Sean Watts, Lieutenant Colonel Patricia Ham, and Mrs Mary Maxwell for their assistance in preparing this article. Nov 19, · If you're facing charges, it's important to understand what to expect.
By learning some of the basics of criminal defense, you'll give yourself the best possible chance of a desirable outcome. There are two types of laws in the United States, civil and criminal.
In both cases, there is a plaintiff. Criminal Justice Policy Process AJS/ Public Policy Discrimination Statistics continue to reflect issues of disparity and discrimination within the American criminal justice system.
The issues that affect the enforcement of laws and government policy can result in His confession is not admissible under Iowa law on “Miranda. Criminal Justice Branch, Ministry of Justi ce has been designated by a provincial o rder-in- council as the program responsible for developing procedures for preparing victim impact statements in British Columbia under that subsection.
• Convictions after summary trial should only be admissible if to do so appears to the court to be criminal conviction could be admissible as prima facie evidence of the facts on which the conviction this potential abuse of process in the Mickelberg case This recommendation is no longer current.