Although the popular Fanmi Lavalas party of ousted President Jean Betrand Aristide was allowed to contest after 11 years, the ruling party of the Western-backed despot Martelly hired armed goons who disrupted the election throughout the country.
Security, stability, sustainability of development gains Orientation Moves forward, is progressive and aggregate: General objectives Growth with equity. Expanding the choices and opportunities of people to lead lives they value.
Identification of risks, prevention to avoid them through dealing with root causes, preparation to mitigate them, and cushioning when disaster strikes.
Policy goals Empowermentsustainabilityequity and productivity. Protection and promotion of human survival freedom from feardaily life freedom from wantand the avoidance of indignities life of dignity.
Relationship with human rights[ edit ] See also: Human rights Human security is indebted to the human rights tradition the ideas of natural law and natural rights. The development of the human security model can be seen to have drawn upon ideas and concepts fundamental to the human rights tradition.
Both approaches use the individual as the main referent and both argue that a wide range of issues i. A major difference between the two models is in their approach to addressing threats to human dignity and survival. Whilst the human rights framework takes a legalistic approach, the human security framework, by utilizing a diverse range of actors, adopts flexible and issue-specific approaches, which can operate at local, national or international levels.
The nature of the relationship between human security and human rights is contested among human security advocates. Some human security advocates argue that the goal of human security should be to build upon and strengthen the existing global human rights legal framework.
Non-governmental organization The term NGO Non Government Organisation cannot be simply defined due to complexities surrounding its structure, environment and complex relations it shares with its internal factions; being its organisational mission, membership and sources of funding, and external factors such as the relationship it shares with actors; detailing the economic, political and societal constructs they may be bound by.
A generic understanding of the term may refer to the actions taken in the interests of independent, voluntary contributors which exist independently from governments and corporations, designed to represent and provide a collective voice to individuals regarding issues.
These issues cover contributions to the fields and industries of human development, health and nutrition, human rights and education, and environmental concerns; all of which influence and affect human security.
The traditional roles of NGOs may be classified into three components, in accordance with Lewis: The expansion of these roles have culminated in assisting the creation of a society where NGOs serve as important players in the global arena in regards to maintaining human security. Due to this increasing influence and the emergence of growing natural and man-made disasters, NGOs now are contracted by governments in order to adequately respond to crises, as well as assist individual or collectivised groups of citizens in lobbying their interests; thus culminating in the ability to enact, influence and change government agendas.
However, NGOs are still largely dependent on certain levels of government funding, hence critics may argue that NGOs pose the ability to potentially damage issues of human security due to this financial dependence. Despite these critiqes, the focus, expertise and infrastructure developed by NGOs through their activities linked with human development and human rights allow them to make unique contributions to human security provision.
A great number of intertwined environmental and social components together create the framework for comprehensive human security under the assumption that neither of those two categories is attainable in the long run without synergy between the two.
Westing posits that the two interdependent branches of comprehensive human security can be broken down into a series of subcomponents to better achieve optimal environmental and social security. Environmental security is composed of two subcomponents: Gender and human security[ edit ] Human security focuses on the serious neglect of gender concerns under the traditional security model.
It has recently been argued that these forms of violence are often overlooked because expressions of masculinity in contexts of war have become the norm. However, as of recent conflicts, it is believed that the majority of war casualties are civilians and that "such a conclusion has sometimes led to the assumptions that women are victimized by war to a greater extent than men, because the majority of adult civilians are women, and when the populations of civilian women and children are added together, they outnumber male combatants.
Furthermore, in the post-war context women survivors generally outnumber men and so it is often said that women as a group bear a greater burden for post-war recovery". Although there are different opinions on the issue of customary practices, it infringes upon human security's notion where women and men are innated with equal human rights.
Attempts to eradicate such violent customary practices requires political and legal approaches where human security in relation to gender should be brought up as the main source of assertion. Such cruel customary practices as honor killing, burning brides and widows, child marriage are still in existence because of women's vulnerability in economic independence and security.
Human security in relationship to gender tries to overthrow such traditional practices that are incompatible to the rights of women.
Also human security seeks to empower women, through education, participation and access, as gender equality is seen as a necessary precondition for peace, security and a prosperous society.
These behaviors range from acting aggressively and exemplifying hyper-masculine behaviors, to playing upon the rise of "nationalist or ethnic consciousness" to secure "political support for the cause and to undermine "the Other".
This tactic undermines the enemy's morale, as they are seen as "unable to protect their women". This categorization is made under the influence of certain value systems which are inherently exclusive by their nature.
For instance, the liberal definition of "human" is:Haiti’s security environment is getting worse at both the domestic and international levels. And, this growing problem must be addressed by the nation’s government at the earliest possible time, in cooperation with the CARICOM countries and the United States of America.
Failure to act now. In the post-Cold War era, the pre-eminent threats to our security derive from human degradation of vital ecosystems as well as the possibility of war and terrorist attack.
This substantial book examines this new ‘security-environment’ paradigm and the way in which the activities of societies are. Demographics impact overall security and political stability in each nation.
Population is a primary factor for conflict. High population density, income inequality and poverty are the driving factors for conflict according to Hague and Ellingsen (Floyd and Matthew, ). emerging political system of global governance in Haiti, particularly regarding its implications for ‘human security.’ My analysis here is rooted in my intimate, yet self-critical, involvement in .
Q: Resilience seems to be an important concept in environmental security. Yes, and resilience at different levels, from a particular piece of equipment to an organization to the resilience of a whole community and a society There's a growing appreciation that you need resilience of both infrastructure and social capital for a community to be.
This article offers a genealogy of human security and environmental security set against the background of the United Nations Human Development Report and .