Classification[ edit ] Hantaviruses are Bunyaviruses. The Bunyaviridae family is divided into five genera: OrthobunyavirusNairovirusPhlebovirusTospovirusand Hantavirus.
Initial symptoms begin suddenly and include intense headaches, back and abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea, and blurred vision. Individuals may have flushing of the face, inflammation or redness of the eyes, or a rash.
Later symptoms can include low blood pressure, acute shock, vascular Korean fever, and acute kidney failure, which can cause severe fluid overload.
The severity of the disease varies depending upon the virus causing the infection. Hantaan and Dobrava virus infections usually cause severe symptoms, while Seoul, Saaremaa, and Puumala virus infections are usually more moderate.
Complete recovery can take weeks or months. Febrile phase Symptoms include redness of cheeks and nose, feverchills, sweaty palms, diarrhea, malaiseheadachesnauseaabdominal and back painrespiratory problems such as the ones common in the influenza virusas well as gastro-intestinal problems.
These symptoms normally occur for three to seven days and arise about two to three weeks after exposure. Hypotensive phase This occurs when the blood platelet levels drop and symptoms can lead to tachycardia and hypoxemia. This phase can last for 2 days. Oliguric phase This phase lasts for three to seven days and is characterised by the onset of renal failure and proteinuria.
Diuretic phase This is characterized by diuresis of three to six litres per day, which can last for a couple of days up to weeks. Convalescent phase This is normally when recovery occurs and symptoms begin to improve.
This syndrome can also be fatal. In some cases, it has been known to cause permanent renal failure. A fourfold rise in IgG antibody titer in a 1-week interval, and the presence of the IgM type of antibodies against hantaviruses are good evidence for an acute hantavirus infection.
HFRS should be suspected in patients with acute febrile flu-like illness, kidney failure of unknown origin and sometimes liver dysfunction. Treatment involves supportive therapy including renal dialysis.
Treatment with ribavirin in China and Korea, administered within 7 days of onset of fever, resulted in a reduced mortality as well as shortened course of illness. Closed storage sheds and cabins are often ideal sites for rodent infestations. Airing out of such spaces prior to use is recommended.
Avoid direct contact with rodent droppings and wear a mask to avoid inhalation of aerosolized rodent secretions. The geography is directly related to the indigenous rodent hosts and the viruses that coevolved with them.All models were 18 years of age or older at the time of depiction.
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Enjoy full seasons of exclusive series, hit movies, Hulu Originals, kids shows, and more. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a group of clinically similar illnesses caused by hantaviruses from the family Bunyaviridae. HFRS includes diseases such as Korean hemorrhagic fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, and nephropathia epidemica.
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