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Evidence for programming by nutrition is established in animals, in whom brief pre- or postnatal nutritional manipulations may program adult size, metabolism, blood lipids, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, atherosclerosis, learning, behavior and life span.
Human epidemiological data link potential markers of early nutrition size at birth or in infancy to cardiovascular Programming by early nutrition and its risk factors in adulthood.
However, these retrospective data cannot prove nutritional cause or underpin health policies. After 16 y, however, of ethical, randomized intervention studies of early nutrition in humans with long-term follow-up to test experimentally the nutritional programming hypothesis, we find that humans, like other species, have sensitive windows for nutrition in terms of later outcomes; for instance, perinatal diet influences neurodevelopment and bone mineralization into mid-childhood.
Animal and human evidence supporting nutritional programming has major potential biological and medical significance.
ByMacy et al. Yet, despite the massive scientific effort, fundamental issues in infant nutrition practice remain unresolved, resulting in confusion among health professionals and in inconsistent, inadequately supported public health recommendations and standards of practice. When such uncertainty exists in the presence of such a large body of research and knowledge, it is reasonable to challenge whether the right questions have been addressed.
To throw more light on this uncertainty, it is instructive to examine how other fields of health intervention have generally evolved.
Usually this has been a three-stage process Lucas Finally, in stage III, formal intervention experiments test the efficacy and safety of clinical or public health practice.
Thus, taking the analogy of research into high blood pressure, stage III research shows whether intervention with antihypertensive drugs matters in terms of improving long-term health e.
|Early nutrition programming of long-term health. - PubMed - NCBI||Epub Jun Early nutrition programming of long-term health.|
|Early nutrition programming of long-term health.||Evidence for programming by nutrition is established in animals, in whom brief pre- or postnatal nutritional manipulations may program adult size, metabolism, blood lipids, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, atherosclerosis, learning, behavior and life span.|
|CLINICAL AND HISTORICAL CONTEXT||E-learning or open and distance learning, ODL is of growing importance in the medical and life science education fields. Due to ever-growing globalization and the increased need for flexibility, even in the medical and life sciences arena, new and innovative methods of education and life-long learning are burning issues.|
|WHAT'S NEW?||Early nutrition programming is the concept that differences in nutritional experience at critical periods in early life, both pre- and post-natally, can programme a person's development, metabolism and health for the future.|
The ability of antihypertensive drugs simply to lower blood pressure stage II research has real value only if it improves outcome stage III research. Twenty years ago, the field of early nutrition had largely become arrested in stage II. Research generally focused on collection of physiological and epidemiological data on growth, nutritional status, metabolic response to feeding, energetics, nutrient absorption and retention, composition of foods, prevalence of nutritional disorders, and so on.
It is true that considerable earlier efforts had been made to define intakes that would prevent overt nutritional deficiency, and that was, of course, of obvious clinical importance. However, formal experimental stage III research on whether early nutrition mattered in terms of critical health and developmental outcomes was seldom undertaken and usually poorly conceived.
In recent decades there has been a significant shift in thinking about nutrition from a preoccupation with meeting nutrient needs to a concern about its effect on health, including adult degenerative diseases, cancer and cognitive function BarkerIARCLucas More recently, an important new dimension to the nutrition and health theme has been the appreciation that there may be critical windows in early development, both pre- and postnatal, during which nutrition could have lifetime consequences for development and major disease in adult life.
Before consideration of nutritional programming, however, the following section describes the much broader concept of programming as a key biological phenomenon. Lucas suggested the term programming be applied to the latter two processes in which the programming stimulus exerts long-term effects only when applied at a critical or sensitive period.
Evidence for programming, other than by nutrition, is considerable Lucas Illustrative examples are cited here. Early imprinting of behavior in birds has been recognized for centuries Spalding Hormonal signals operating during critical windows have numerous programming effects.
Thus, in rats, testosterone secreted by the fetal testis at a critical period programs the brain for male sexual behaviour; a single dose of testosterone given during at this time to a female fetus will permanently reorientate sexual behaviour to the male form Angelbeck and Du Brul Teratogenic drugs, recognized since the s, have powerful programming effects on somatic development.
But postnatal programming by drugs may also occur: Normal visual inputs are essential for development of the visual pathway, hence squint amblyopia. The programming window is usually early fetal life or infancy, but, arguably, in the case of antigen-induced programming of the immune system, sensitivity may be lifelong.The early-life origins of health and disease.
The environment encountered during fetal life and infancy appears to be strongly related to risk of non-communicable diseases in adult life (Barker, ).In order to explain these apparently causal relationships it is proposed that adaptations during critical phases of growth and development may ensure the maintenance of homeostasis, and hence.
Search for other works by this author on: That events during critical or sensitive periods of development may “program” long-term or life-time structure or function of the organism is well recognized.
Evidence for programming by nutrition is established in animals, in whom brief pre- or. Welcome! On behalf of the EarlyNutrition Project and the Early Nutrition Academy (ENA), the Organizing Committee was delighted to welcome the participants to “The Power of Programming - Developmental Origins of Adiposity and Long-term Health” that took place October , in Munich, Germany.
Worldwide, EarlyNutrition is the largest project investigating programming effects for health in later life. Researchers from 35 institutions in 12 European countries, the United States and Australia have joined forces to study how early nutrition programming and lifestyle factors impact the rates of obesity and related disorders.
MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom Search for other works by this author on: That events during critical or sensitive periods of development may “program” long-term or life-time structure or function of the organism is well.
Early Nutrition Academy: Introduction to science of early nutrition and metabolic programming, aims of the academy, trainings and post-graduate courses.